A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Question mark (?)

a.     Used to pose a question or to express an editorial doubt.

e.g. The Smiths came to Japan first in 1950? by boat.

When did you first come to Japan?

b.     Place the question mark inside quotation marks, parentheses, or brackets when it is part of the quoted or parenthetical material. (As above.)

c.      Place it outside quotation marks when quoted material isn’t a question.

e.g. When did you first hear “konnichiwa”?

d.     Indirect and rhetorical questions do not need a question mark.

e.g. Gary asked if he could go to the writing conference.

Quotation marks (“  ”)

a.     Direct quotations must reproduce exactly the wording, spelling, and punctuation of the original, with one exception: It is acceptable to change the initial letter of the quotation to a capital or lowercase letter to fit the syntax of the text.

b.     The author is responsible to check every quotation against the original for accuracy.

c.      Set quotations over eight lines in a block quotes. There is no need for quotations marks in block quotes. Smaller quotations go within the text.

d.     If the quotation, either run into or set off from the text, is used as part of the author’s sentence, it begins with a lowercase letter, even though the original is a complete sentence and begins with a capital letter.

e.g. The Gospel of John begins with the assertion that “in the beginning was the Word.”

e.     Direct conversation, whether run into or set off from the text, should always be enclosed in double quotation marks.

e.g. Travis protested, “I simply do not like the taste of tofu in food!” He had just finished eating a small bowl of tofu chili. “Ugh! Tofu has no taste, in my opinion.”

f.      Double quotation marks should also be used with words or phrases that are coined or invented expressions, express irony, are slang or are otherwise worthy of distinguishing.

g.     Do not use single quotation marks at all unless including a quotation within a quotation that appears within the body of the text.

e.g. Katie said, “Stop saying, ‘I told you so!’ it is driving me crazy.”

h.     Scripture used in block quotations must be followed by the reference in parentheses (round brackets).

i.       Block quotations set off from the text should not be enclosed in quotation marks. Quotations within the block quotation should be enclosed in double quotation marks. (See “Quotations, Block” for block quotation guidelines.)

j.       Titles of articles, chapters, and other shorter works are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks. (The Chicago Manual of Style)

k.     Reference citations for block quotes always sit outside of the last punctuation mark in the quote and there is no full stop after the citation.

e.g. “Anything of value is going to cost you something.”  (Shaughnessy 1993, p. 10)

l.       When quoted in text or listed in a bibliography, titles of books, journals, plays, and other freestanding works are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and other shorter works are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks.

Note: In some Commonwealth publications single quotations are used, however often double quotation marks are used just as in US English. Therefore Japan Harvest will uniformly use double quotation marks.

Quotations, Block

A block quotation is a longer quotation of more than five or six typeset lines or a hundred words set off from the text. It is generally indented and often one point smaller than the body text.