- The author is responsible to provide references for material that is quoted or referred to in the text. Japan Harvest uses the Chicago Manual of Style to standardize citations. See the CMOS website for specific guidance: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
- Number footnotes consecutively from beginning to end of article.
Books and magazines
- Harold G. Henderson, An Introduction to Haiku: An Anthology of Poems and Poets from Basho to Shiki (New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1958), 124.
- L. Clauson, “Religious Imagery in Dylan’s Later Songs,” Poetry and Christianity 16 (Summer 2001), 110.
- Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Possessed (New York: Signet Classics, 1962), 224.
- Clauson, “Religious Imagery in Dylan’s Later Songs,” 112.
- Abe Yoshio 阿部善雄, and Kaneko Hideo 金子英生, 最後の「日本人」 : 朝河貫一の生涯 [The last ‘Japanese’: Life of Kan’ichi Asakawa] ( Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, 1983), 55.
- Nakamura Satoshi 中村敏, 揺れ動く時代におけるキリスト者の使命：日本はどこへ行き、私たちはどこに立つのか？ [Christians’ calling in an age that is being shaken up: Where is Japan heading, and where do we stand?] (Japan: Inochi no kotoba sha, 2016), 112-113.
- E. Ediger, “You Can’t Kid a Quilter,” from “Quilting Graffiti,” Quilters Anonymous online magazine, from Quilting Monthly (2 December 2001), quiltingmonthly.com/anonymous/graffiti.
- Ken Stephens and David Shepherd, “A Brief History of Nashville Publishing,” About,com, 20 April 2000 (accessed June 20, 2001).
- Shawn L. Stanford, “A Meeting of the Minds: Creation of the Arizona Constitution,” Web-based article taken from the Introduction to Liberty and Justice: The Writing of the Arizona State Constitution (Phoenix: Published for the Arizona Constitutional Preservation Administration by the State of Arizona Archives Trust Fund Board, Arizona Archives and Records Foundation, 1998), http//:www.azconst.gov
- Japanese website: Author in romaji and kanji if available, Title of article. Title of website in English with “Japanese website” included in round brackets after title. When published or when accessed. Link
e.g. “北海道三笠高等学校,” Wikipedia, accessed June 24, 2018, https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/北海道三笠高等学校.
e.g. Nihon Kanzen Shinbun, “Over 40% of Japanese high school students sleep in class” (Japanese website), April 7, 2010, https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASDG0704E_X00C10A4000000/
For a Kindle, iPad or other electronic version, list the author, title, publisher data, the device version, and the major sections (chapter, section, and paragraph number; abbreviate if titles are long).
- Roger J. Davies and Osamu Ikeno, The Japanese Mind: Understanding Contemporary Japanese Culture, (Boston: Tuttle Publishing, 2002), Kindle DX version, Chapter __, Section __, para. __.
- Davies and Ikeno, The Japanese Mind, Chapter __, Section __, para. __.
- When quoting Scripture, place the period after the parentheses containing the reference. If the quotation ends in a question or exclamation point, place it with the text and place a period after the last parenthesis.
“Finally, my brothers, rejoice in the Lord” (Phil. 3:1 NIV 1984).
“When Peter saw him, he asked, “Lord, what about him?” (John 21:21 NIV).
- If an author uses the same Bible version for all the quotes in an article, only cite the first one. If more than one version is used, each Scripture quotation must reference the Bible version.
For abbreviations of Bible books, see Goss and Goss.
Romanization of Japanese terms
Japan Harvest uses rōmaji according to its own simplified version of the modified Hepburn system. (See Wikipedia, Hepburn romanization for a discussion of its history and Hepburn system variants.)
Apostrophe: Japan Harvest avoids the use of an apostrophe to indicate separate Japanese syllables.
e.g. Shinetsu, not Shin’etsu (信越); shinyō, not shin’yō (信用)
Hyphen: use sparingly
e.g. Meiji jidai-shi (or jidaishi) no shinkenkyu
e.g. Shinjuku-ku (or Shinjukuku) no meisho.”
Macrons over long vowels can be helpful to show correct pronunciation when using rōmaji (see below—Vowels, long). However, with romanized spellings of Japanese entities, Japan Harvest defers to their preferred English renderings as displayed on official municipality, university, or publisher’s websites, etc.
Many municipality names are found on travel websites, however, a municipality page’s spelling takes priority. In many cases you can just search for an official city, university, or publisher’s website, etc. and immediately determine what they have decided the spelling of their name is in romaji. This spelling may or may not indicate the presence of a long vowel.
For example, see the following site for Oita.
For a few additional examples, do not use a macron with:
Kodansha, Doshisha University, Tokyo, Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe, Kyushu, Honshu, Hokkaido, Ryukyu Islands, Bonin Islands, Iwo Jima, etc.
Words that have entered the English language and are not italicized, such as tsunami, bonsai, karaoke, sumo, judo, shogun, daimyo, etc.
N, (syllabic) ん
In earlier Hepburn romanization systems, the syllabic n (ん) was transcribed as m before b, m, or p sounds. This form is no longer recommended, but remains in use in some official anglicized names. If the common name uses the m variant, use that, but use the n form in any pronunciation guide.
e.g. Namba Station (難波駅 Nanba-eki); Mainichi Shimbun (毎日新聞 Mainichi Shinbun); Gunma Prefecture, not “Gumma Prefecture”
Japan Harvest avoids the use of an apostrophe to denote a syllabic n when it could be confused with na, ni, nu, ne, or no. (See Apostrophe in this section.)
Names, Japanese spellings
When Japanese script (kanji/kana) and romaji pronunciation is included in the text, list according to the following example:
Mount Fuji (富士山 Fuji-san)
Note: In running text, do not italicize proper nouns, even when using transliterations.
e.g. Fuji-san, not Fuji-san
Names, Personal – suffixes
Hyphens are used to set off honorific suffixes in personal names.
e.g. Shimada-san, Kaori-chan, Taro-kun
For status- or position-identifying suffixes, treat the term as a separate, capitalized word.
e.g. Kawasaki Buchō, Tanaka Sensei, Amano Senpai
Particles は, へ and を: write wa, e, and o respectively.
Sokuon (“chiisai tsu”) っ: written as t before ch (i.e., こっち kotchi, not kocchi).
Titles, tranliterated: Particles such as (but not limited to) wa (は), e (へ), o (を), ga (が), and yo (よ) should not be capitalized (i.e., Otoko wa Tsurai yo, not Otoko wa tsurai yo nor Otoko Wa Tsurai Yo).
When macrons are used to indicate romanized long vowels, use the following guidelines:
Katakana — for loanwords with long vowels [indicated by 長音符 chōonpu (ー)] use macrons with all five vowels (ā, ī, ū, ē, ō).
Hiragana — see the below romanization guide. For detailed discussion and examples, see the Wikipedia article on Hepburn Romanization under Long Vowels. The chart below summarizes key guidance from the Wikipedia article:
Romanization guide for long vowel sounds
(when to use a macron and when to use double consonants)
|Vowel sound||a + a||i + i||u + u||e + e||e + i||o + o||o + u|
|For a simple long vowel||お婆さん|
|For a verb in|
|When there is a word-border||湖|
|With a long vowel + word border||憂鬱|
Round Brackets (BrE)